Forty-one subjects from an earlier study, who had undergone computed tomography (CT) during their in-patient care for affective disorder, were followed up clinically for a minimum of one year. Mortality at two years was also determined, and comparisons made with 50 age-matched controls. Those with affective disorder showed a higher mortality than controls, but the difference just failed to reach significance. Within the affective group, however, mortality was significantly higher in patients who had previously shown ventricular enlargement on CT, confirming our earlier suggestion that these patients might have constituted a distinct subgroup. Failure of the affective group to improve performance on a simple cognitive test at follow-up was related to persisting depression. These and other findings are discussed.