Depression, hopelessness and suicide in chronic schizophrenia.
R E Drake, P G Cotton


Hospital records for 104 schizophrenic patients, 15 of whom subsequently committed suicide, were rated blindly for individual depressive symptoms comprising DSM III major depressive episode, and for hopelessness. Our results indicate that a large proportion of schizophrenic patients experienced major depressive episodes, and that these can be reliably identified. Presuicidal schizophrenics also experienced depressed mood, but only a minority developed the full syndrome; they typically exhibited the psychological, but not somatic symptoms. The relationship between depression and suicide disappears when hopelessness is taken into account.