The symptoms of chronic schizophrenia. A re-examination of the positive-negative dichotomy.
P F Liddle


The relationships between symptoms in 40 schizophrenic patients, selected for persistence of symptoms, were examined. The symptoms segregated into three syndromes: psychomotor poverty (poverty of speech, lack of spontaneous movement and various aspects of blunting of affect); disorganisation (inappropriate affect, poverty of content of speech, and disturbances of the form of thought); and reality distortion (particular types of delusions and hallucinations). Both the psychomotor poverty and disorganisation syndromes were associated with social and occupational impairment; in particular, the psychomotor poverty syndrome was associated with impairment of personal relationships, and the disorganisation syndrome with poor self-care and impersistence at work.