A retrospective case-note survey was carried out on 31 subjects admitted with temporal-lobe epilepsy to the Maudsley hospital from 1974-1983 inclusive. Fourteen aggressive subjects were compared with the non-aggressive patients on 95 organic, developmental, and social variables. Aggressive behaviour was associated with male sex, early onset of seizures, and a history of long-standing behavioural problems. Aggressive subjects had lower mean IQ scores and poorer occupational records than controls. No relationship was found between aggression and the presence of specific EEG or CAT scan findings, or a history of psychosis. The results demonstrate the complex interplay between organic and socially mediated factors underlying aggressive behaviour in temporal-lobe epilepsy.