The British Journal of Psychiatry
The Hamilton scales and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90). A cross-national validity study in patients with panic disorders.
P Bech, P Allerup, W Maier, M Albus, P Lavori, J L Ayuso


The HRSD, HRSA, SCL-90 scales were psychometrically investigated in a cross-national sample of patients with varieties of non-psychotic symptoms of anxiety and depression. Across the cultural backgrounds the scores obtained from the original versions of these scales are not sufficient statistics. However, latent structure analysis has identified homogeneous subscales for depression (the HRSD) and for discomfort (an SCL subscale). High concurrent validity was found between the subscales of depression, anxiety and discomfort. In international research, inhomogeneity among scale items can be confounded with group differences which are usually ascribed to drug differences.