Psychiatric morbidity in survivors of organised state violence including torture. A retrospective series.
R Ramsay, C Gorst-Unsworth, S Turner


The case notes documenting the psychological well-being of 100 survivors of torture and other forms of organised state violence were analysed retrospectively. The most common diagnoses were post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression, and somatoform disorders. Of these, PTSD showed the strongest association with experience of torture. It is possible that PTSD has a dimensional nature, and that reactions to different stressors are heterogeneous.