Stressful life events and schizophrenia. II: Conceptual and methodological issues.
R M Norman, A K Malla


Research on the relationship between stress and schizophrenia is fraught with conceptual and methodological problems. These problems include issues related to the nature and measurement of stress, the likelihood of reciprocal influences between stress and symptoms, and the adequate assessment of symptoms. Several recommendations are made regarding future research in this area. These include using multiple and broadly based measures of different types of stressors and symptoms, greater use of truly prospective research designs, and the evaluation of the effects of interventions specifically designed to reduce stress in patients who suffer from schizophrenia.