Movement disorder in never and minimally treated Nigerian schizophrenic patients.
R G McCreadie, J U Ohaeri


Two hundred and forty-two Nigerian schizophrenic patients (63% male, 37% female), whose mean age was 42 years and length of illness 12 years, were examined for movement disorders using the Abnormal Involuntary Movements Scale, the Simpson and Angus Parkinsonism Scale and the Barnes Akathisia Scale. Twelve patients had never received antipsychotic medication; and none of these had dyskinesia. Dyskinesia was found in 5 of 49 patients (10%) who had taken medication throughout the course of their illness for a total of up to 3 months, 13 of 74 (18%) who had taken medication for 4-12 months, 14 of 41 (34%) for 1-5 years, and 29 of 66 (45%) who had taken medication for more than 5 years. Of 77 patients who were receiving antipsychotic medication at the time of examination, 9 (12%) had Parkinsonism and 12 (15%) akathisia. Examination of the patients' mental state by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale showed an association between dyskinesia and positive, but not negative, schizophrenic symptoms. Nigerian patients showed a low level of negative symptoms.