Intensive case management for the severely mentally ill. Controlled trial.
F Holloway, J Carson


BACKGROUND The aim was to compare the efficacy of intensive clinical case management (ICM) with standard community care in the management of 'hard to treat' patients with a severe mental illness.

METHOD A randomised controlled trial was carried out in East Lambeth, a deprived area of inner London. Seventy people with psychosis designated as 'hard to treat' by referring teams were included; 35 were randomised to ICM (case load eight patients per worker), and 35 to standard care, which offered follow-up by a community psychiatric nursing service (30 patients per worker). Outcome measures were admissions and hospital bed utilisation; contact with services; symptomatology; social behaviour; social functioning; quality of life; patients' satisfaction with care at 9 and 18 months.

RESULTS There were no differences in patients' symptoms, social behaviour or social functioning. Quality of life was significantly improved in patients receiving ICM at 9 months. Satisfaction with care was significantly greater among case-managed patients. All ICM patients remained in contact with services throughout the study, while six control patients were refusing all contact with services at 18 months.

CONCLUSIONS ICM failed to improve the clinical outcome of 'hard to treat' patients. The service was successful in maintaining contact with patients, was greatly appreciated and had a positive effect on their perceived quality of life.