Prefrontal cortex activity in people with schizophrenia and control subjects. Evidence from positron emission tomography for remission of 'hypofrontality' with recovery from acute schizophrenia.

S A Spence , S R Hirsch , D J Brooks , P M Grasby

Abstract

BACKGROUND Hypo-activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is inconsistently found in neuroimaging studies of schizophrenia. As the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is involved in the generation of action, disordered function in this region may be implicated in schizophrenic symptomatology.

METHOD We used H2 15O positron emission tomography to study dorsolateral prefrontal cortical function in men with schizophrenia (n = 13) and male control subjects (n = 6) performing joystick movements on two occasions, 4-6 weeks apart. The patients were initially in relapse. To clarify dorsolateral prefrontal cortical function we also scanned another group of control subjects (n = 5) performing mouth movements.

RESULTS The control subjects performing hand or mouth movements activated the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to a maximum when the movements were self-selected. The men with relapsed schizophrenia exhibited left dorsolateral prefrontal cortical hypoactivation, which remitted with symptomatic improvement.

CONCLUSIONS Hypofrontality in these patients is a dynamic phenomenon across time, possibly related to current symptomatology. The most appropriate question about the presence of hypofrontality in schizophrenia may be when, rather than whether, it will occur.