The British Journal of Psychiatry
Childhood adversities as risk factors for onset and persistence of suicidal behaviour
Ronny Bruffaerts, Koen Demyttenaere, Guilherme Borges, Josep Maria Haro, Wai Tat Chiu, Irving Hwang, Elie G. Karam, Ronald C. Kessler, Nancy Sampson, Jordi Alonso, Laura Helena Andrade, Matthias Angermeyer, Corina Benjet, Evelyn Bromet, Giovanni de Girolamo, Ron de Graaf, Silvia Florescu, Oye Gureje, Itsuko Horiguchi, Chiyi Hu, Viviane Kovess, Daphna Levinson, Jose Posada-Villa, Rajesh Sagar, Kate Scott, Adley Tsang, Svetlozar M. Vassilev, David R. Williams, Matthew K. Nock

Abstract

Background

Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide, but the precise effect of childhood adversities as risk factors for the onset and persistence of suicidal behaviour (suicide ideation, plans and attempts) are not well understood.

Aims

To examine the associations between childhood adversities as risk factors for the onset and persistence of suicidal behaviour across 21 countries worldwide.

Method

Respondents from nationally representative samples (n = 55 299) were interviewed regarding childhood adversities that occurred before the age of 18 years and lifetime suicidal behaviour.

Results

Childhood adversities were associated with an increased risk of suicide attempt and ideation in both bivariate and multivariate models (odds ratio range 1.2–5.7). The risk increased with the number of adversities experienced, but at a decreasing rate. Sexual and physical abuse were consistently the strongest risk factors for both the onset and persistence of suicidal behaviour, especially during adolescence. Associations remained similar after additional adjustment for respondents’ lifetime mental disorder status.

Conclusions

Childhood adversities (especially intrusive or aggressive adversities) are powerful predictors of the onset and persistence of suicidal behaviours.

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