Brief eclectic psychotherapy v. eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder: randomised controlled trial
Mirjam J. Nijdam, Berthold P. R. Gersons, Johannes B. Reitsma, Ad de Jongh, Miranda Olff
  • Declaration of interest

    A.d.J. teaches and supervises clinical psychologists and psychiatrists in psychological trauma and its treatment by means of seminars, workshops and conferences, for which the participants pay a fee. He is also director and shareholder of a trauma treatment unit. For both activities he has the formal permission of the executive board of the University of Amsterdam to which he is affiliated.



Trauma-focused cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy (EMDR) are efficacious treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but few studies have directly compared them using well-powered designs and few have investigated response patterns.


To compare the efficacy and response pattern of a trauma-focused CBT modality, brief eclectic psychotherapy for PTSD, with EMDR (trial registration: ISRCTN64872147).


Out-patients with PTSD were randomly assigned to brief eclectic psychotherapy (n = 70) or EMDR (n = 70) and assessed at all sessions on self-reported PTSD (Impact of Event Scale – Revised). Other outcomes were clinician-rated PTSD, anxiety and depression.


Both treatments were equally effective in reducing PTSD symptom severity, but the response pattern indicated that EMDR led to a significantly sharper decline in PTSD symptoms than brief eclectic psychotherapy, with similar drop-out rates (EMDR: n = 20 (29%), brief eclectic psychotherapy: n = 25 (36%)). Other outcome measures confirmed this pattern of results.


Although both treatments are effective, EMDR results in a faster recovery compared with the more gradual improvement with brief eclectic psychotherapy.

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