Cognitive-behavioural therapy for the symptoms of schizophrenia: systematic review and meta-analysis with examination of potential bias
S. Jauhar, P. J. McKenna, J. Radua, E. Fung, R. Salvador, K. R. Laws
  • Declaration of interest




Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is considered to be effective for the symptoms of schizophrenia. However, this view is based mainly on meta-analysis, whose findings can be influenced by failure to consider sources of bias.


To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of CBT for schizophrenic symptoms that includes an examination of potential sources of bias.


Data were pooled from randomised trials providing end-of-study data on overall, positive and negative symptoms. The moderating effects of randomisation, masking of outcome assessments, incompleteness of outcome data and use of a control intervention were examined. Publication bias was also investigated.


Pooled effect sizes were –0.33 (95% CI –0.47 to –0.19) in 34 studies of overall symptoms, –0.25 (95% CI –0.37 to –0.13) in 33 studies of positive symptoms and –0.13 (95% CI –0.25 to –0.01) in 34 studies of negative symptoms. Masking significantly moderated effect size in the meta-analyses of overall symptoms (effect sizes –0.62 (95% CI –0.88 to –0.35) v. –0.15 (95% CI –0.27 to –0.03), P = 0.001) and positive symptoms (effect sizes –0.57 (95% CI –0.76 to –0.39) v. –0.08 (95% CI –0.18 to 0.03), P<0.001). Use of a control intervention did not moderate effect size in any of the analyses. There was no consistent evidence of publication bias across different analyses.


Cognitive-behavioural therapy has a therapeutic effect on schizophrenic symptoms in the ‘small’ range. This reduces further when sources of bias, particularly masking, are controlled for.

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