One-day cognitive-behavioural therapy self-confidence workshops for people with depression: randomised controlled trial
Linda Horrell, Kimberley A. Goldsmith, André T. Tylee, Ulrike H. Schmidt, Caroline L. Murphy, Eva-Maria Bonin, Jennifer Beecham, Joanna Kelly, Shriti Raikundalia, June S. L Brown, the CLASSIC trial group
  • Declaration of interest




Despite its high prevalence, help-seeking for depression is low.


To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of 1-day cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) self-confidence workshops in reducing depression. Anxiety, self-esteem, prognostic indicators as well as access were also assessed.


An open randomised controlled trial (RCT) waiting list control design with 12-week follow-up was used (trial registration: ISRCTN26634837). A total of 459 adult participants with depression (Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores of ⩾14) self-referred and 382 participants (83%) were followed up.


At follow-up, experimental and control participants differed significantly on the BDI, with an effect size of 0.55. Anxiety and self-esteem also differed. Of those who participated, 25% were GP non-consulters and 32% were from Black and minority ethnic groups. Women benefited more than men on depression scores. The intervention has a 90% chance of being considered cost-effective if a depression-free day is valued at £14.


Self-confidence workshops appear promising in terms of clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and access by difficult-to-engage groups.


  • Funding

    This paper presents independent research funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) under its Research for Patient Benefit (RfPB) Programme (Grant Reference Number PB-PG-1207-15154). The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health. J.S.L.B., A.T. and U.S. are partly funded by the NIHR Mental Health Biomedical Research Centre (BRC) at the Institute of Psychiatry and South London and Maudsley Foundation Trust. J.B. and E.M.B. are partly funded by NIHR Programme Grants for Applied Research.

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