Mean digit span scores on structured and random trials.
(a) Mean digit span score on structured trials at pre- and post-intervention; (b) mean digit span scores on random trials at pre- and post-intervention. When each trial type is examined separately there is a significant main effect of time for both trial types (P<0.001) and a significant time × group interaction (F(1,28) = 6.40, P = 0.017) for structured trials (a), but not for random trials (P = 0.67) (b). Error bars are standard errors of mean.
Results of the change in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response (calculated as post-beta value – pre-beta value), in each of the four specified regions of interest.
Right parietal cortex (RPC, 46, −40, 42), right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (RDLPFC 39, 43, 33), left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC −39, 36, 36), left parietal cortex (LPC −37, −45, −37), Average, change in beta values averaged across all four regions of interest. Error bars are standard errors of mean.
↵a. Scores for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale – Cognitive section (ADAS-Cog), Paired Associates Learning task, self ordered search task and trail making task part A are shown as medians and interquartile ranges (IQR), as data were not normally distributed. The units are maximum scores for all tasks except trails A (time in seconds), fluency (maximum of 14), Logical Memory Task 2 (maximum of 32). Results of trail making task, part B are not reported due to floor effects at both time points. Results in bold are significant.
↵b. The ADAS-Cog is inversely scored, therefore higher scores represent more impairment.