Table 1

Prediction of child psychopathology: fixed and random effects from multi-level analysis (standard errors in parentheses)

Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4 Model 5
For the fixed and random effects parameters, family type was dummy coded, with biological families as the control condition. Thus, the regression coefficients (for fixed effects) and variance estimates (for random effects) indicate the effect relative to the biological families. For example, beginning in model 2, family-level and child-level variances are allowed to differ across family type. Model 2 indicates that there is significantly more child-level variance in stepfather families compared with biological families because the variance estimate, 0.34, is greater than twice its standard error, 0.13. Thus, the total child-level variance in stepfather families is equal to 0.35 (for biological families) +0.34 (the additional variance in stepfather families)=0.69. n=453.
Fixed effects
Family-level variables
Simple stepfather 0.22 (15) 0.22 (0.13) 0.09 (0.22) -0.01 (0.13) -0.03 (0.12)
Stepmother/complex 0.52 (0.15) 0.52 (0.14) 0.47 (0.13) 0.19 (0.15) 0.26 (0.14)
Single-parent 0.48 (0.15) 0.48 (0.14) 0.31 (0.15) 0.18 (0.13) 0.15 (13)
Income -0.06 (0.04) -0.06 (0.04) -0.05 (0.04)
Maternal education -0.11 (0.09) -0.10 (0.08) -0.10 (0.08)
Maternal depression 1.96 (0.33) 1.17 (0.30) 1.18 (0.29)
Child-level variables
Gender 0.17 (0.06) -0.18 (0.06)
Age -0.02 (0.01) -0.03 (0.01)
Non-biological relatedness: father 0.26 (0.12) 0.31 (0.12)
Non-biological relatedness: mother 0.34 (0.17) 0.26 (0.18)
Maternal negativity 0.43 (0.04) 0.24 (0.11)
Maternal positivity -0.22 (0.05) -0.21 (0.5)
Interactions
Between-level interactions
Negativity × simple stepfather 0.06 (0.12)
Negativity × stepmother/complex -0.24 (0.11)
Negativity × single-parent 0.10 (0.12)
Within-level interactions
Negativity × child age 0.03 (0.01)
Random effects
Family level
Control 0.31 0.17 (0.07) 0.15 (0.07) 0.13 (0.06) 0.13 (0.05)
Simple stepfather - 0.07 (0.14) -0.03 (0.11) -0.07 (0.08) -0.07 (0.08)
Stepmother/complex - 0.21 (0.15) 0.09 (0.12) 0.25 (0.13) 0.19 (0.11)
Single-parent - 0.28 (0.15) 0.15 (0.13) 0.10 (0.09) 0.10 (0.09)
Individual child level
Control 0.51 0.35 (0.06) 0.35 (0.06) 0.27 (0.05) 0.27 (0.05)
Simple stepfather - 0.34 (0.13) 0.34 (0.13) 0.19 (0.09) 0.18 (0.09)
Stepmother/complex - 0.19 (0.11) 0.19 (0.11) 0.09 (0.08) 0.08 (0.08)
Single-parent - 0.05 (0.10) 0.06 (0.10) -0.01 (0.07) -0.02 (0.07)
-2 (log likelihood) 1143 1129 1088 942 924