Table 2

Kruskal—Wallis analyses and effect size estimates for autonomic reactivity scores by symptom group (group differences with both statistical significance and moderate or greater effect sizes shown in bold)

Low symptoms High internalising High externalising High both χ 2 Effect size estimates1
Low symptoms v. internalisers Low symptoms v. externalisers Low symptoms v. high both
MAP, mean arterial pressure; PEP, pre-ejection period; RSA, respiratory sinus arrhythmia.
1.An estimate of Cohen's δ based on the Mann—Whitney U statistic.
2.P<0.10.
*P<0.05; **P<0.01.
RSA
Intensity 6.13 (1.01) 5.51 (0.84) 6.05 (0.82) 5.88 (1.11) 7.87* -0.75 -0.06 -0.31
Variability 0.56 (0.28) 0.55 (0.28) 0.77 (0.31) 0.62 (0.25) 6.372 -0.04 0.69 0.33
Recovery -0.46 (0.60) -0.02 (0.72) -0.42 (0.54) -0.51 (0.51) 5.23 0.24 0.58 0.58
Slope 0.34 (0.56) 0.42 (0.54) 0.55 (0.50) 0.63 (0.31) 5.50 0.59 0.09 -0.10
Difference 0.02 (0.40) 0.00 (0.29) 0.30 (0.22) -0.09 (0.36) 13.11** -0.15 1.03 -0.37
PEP
Intensity 83.16 (6.63) 84.90 (6.46) 84.34 (6.27) 83.59 (6.47) 1.68 0.30 0.28 0.03
Variability 1.85 (0.93) 1.67 (0.67) 1.87 (0.95) 2.39 (1.37) 1.64 -0.14 0.00 0.32
Recovery 0.60 (1.93) -0.19 (1.97) 0.49 (2.80) 0.14 (2.84) 2.23 0.12 0.44 0.29
Slope 0.29 (0.57) 0.34 (0.64) 0.55 (0.33) 0.40 (0.63) 1.99 -0.42 0.06 -0.09
Difference 0.77 (9.35) 1.03 (8.12) 1.81 (8.17) 2.01 (7.16) 7.91* 0.04 0.56 0.79
Heart rate
Intensity 91.92 (9.35) 96.25 (8.12) 95.31 (8.17) 92.44 (7.16) 4.29 0.51 0.31 0.08
Variability 5.28 (2.00) 5.10 (2.09) 6.03 (2.18) 5.50 (0.97) 2.28 -0.01 0.36 0.30
Recovery 2.00 (3.79) 0.22 (3.76) 2.25 (4.58) 0.83 (3.70) 3.57 -0.12 -0.42 -0.16
Slope -0.54 (0.28) -0.55 (0.36) -0.60 (0.39) -0.55 (0.38) 1.64 -0.59 -0.02 -0.21
Difference -0.05 (2.26) 0.91 (2.08) -0.51 (2.76) 0.25 (1.92) 3.24 0.47 -0.14 0.10
MAP
Intensity 74.32 (5.55) 76.33 (4.94) 74.53 (4.65) 74.23 (6.35) 2.70 0.38 0.06 -0.16
Variability 5.10 (2.50) 5.15 (2.18) 4.90 (1.75) 4.50 (2.54) 1.21 0.10 0.01 -0.26
Slope -0.15 (0.58) -0.02 (0.53) 0.11 (0.65) -0.05 (0.58) 2.49 0.27 0.39 0.19
Difference 2.20 (4.05) 2.89 (3.38) 2.42 (4.40) -0.52 (3.74) 6.362 0.15 0.07 -0.72