Table 1

Demographic and psychiatric characteristics of participants and non-participants

All subjects (n=97) Non-participants (n=24) Participants (n=73) Test non-participants v. participants
Statistic1P
1.For categorical variables the statistic is χ2 (d.f.=1); for continuous variables the statistic is U (Mann—Whitney test, two-tailed).
2.Positive symptoms: unusual thought content, hallucinatory behaviour, conceptual disorganisation, distractability; negative symptoms: motor retardation, blunted affect, emotional withdrawal (Breier et al, 1991). Items were scored from 1 (not present) to 7 (very severe). The mean item scores of the previous 2 months of in-patient treatment were used.
3.Mean compliance during in-patient and out-patient treatment was used. Compliance was scored from 1 (no compliance: 0%) to 4 (100% compliance, including depot).
Age at admission, mean (s.d.) 20.5 (2.5) 19.5 (2.6) 20.9 (2.4) 624 0.03
Gender, n (%)
Female 26 (27) 4 (17) 22 (30) 1.67 0.20
Male 71 (73) 20 (83) 51 (70)
Education, n (%)
< Secondary school 21 (22) 6 (25) 15 (21) 0.21 0.65
≥ Secondary school 76 (78) 18 (75) 58 (80)
Socio-economic status, n (%)
Low (III-V) 73 (75) 20 (83) 53 (73) 1.12 0.29
High (I-II) 24 (25) 4 (17) 20 (27)
Age of onset of schizophrenia, mean (s.d.) 19.1 (2.6) 18.5 (2.8) 19.3 (2.5) 759 0.32
Prior psychotic episodes, n (%)
None 55 (57) 17 (71) 38 (52) 2.59 0.11
One or more 42 (43) 7 (29) 35 (48)
Prior admissions, n (%)
None 57 (59) 18 (75) 39 (53) 3.47 0.06
One or more 40 (41) 6 (25) 34 (47)
DSM-III-R schizophrenia, n (%)
No 41 (42) 10 (42) 31 (42) <0.01 0.95
Yes 56 (58) 14 (58) 42 (58)
Months of untreated illness, mean (s.d.) 5.6 (10.2) 6.3 (6.1) 5.4 (11.2) 589 0.05
Sum score of positive and negative symptoms,2 mean (s.d.) 15.1 (4.7) 15.6 (3.4) 14.9 (5.0) 730 0.22
Compliance with antipsychotic medication,3 mean (s.d.) 3.7 (0.7) 3.4 (1.0) 3.8 (0.4) 665 0.04