Table 1

Risk factors for ‘probable’ sudden death

Risk factor Cases included in analysis Controls unmatched for diagnosis Controls matched for diagnosis Missing data (across all three groups) Unadjusted odds ratios (95% CI) P
1.Unadjusted odds ratios calculated using one control (unmatched for psychiatric diagnosis) for each case.SSRIs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
Total number 69 69 63 -
Age in years (mean and s.d.) 66.7 (7.7) 66.6 (8.7) 66.9 (10.7) -
Male 33 31 33 -
Median length of stay in days 633 300 345 -
Psychiatric disorder
Schizophrenia 23 24 19 0.92 (0.40-2.1) 0.84
Mood disorder 27 22 17 1.4 (0.68-2.7) 0.38
Organic disorder 31 30 32 1.1 (0.57-1.9) 0.88
Physical illness
Arrhythmia 5 2 1 3 N/A
Chronic lung disease 6 2 2 3 2.5 (0.49-12.9) 0.27
Heart failure 7 3 1 N/A
Hypertension 9 3 3 3 4.0 (0.85-18.8) 0.08
Ischaemic heart disease 17 6 3 3 3.5 (1.15-10.6) 0.027
Previous myocardial infarction1 11 3 2 3.7 (1.02-13.1) 0.05
Stroke 8 8 8 3 1.0 (0.25-4.0) 1.0
Alcohol excess 4 4 3 140 N/A
Smoking ever 15 19 12 136 N/A
Antipsychotic therapy
Chlorpromazine 5 6 7 1 0.75 (0.17-3.3) 0.71
Droperidol 2 0 0 N/A
Flupenthixol 5 3 3 1 1.67 (0.40-7.0) 0.48
Fluphenazine 3 6 5 1 0.40 (0.08-2.1) 0.27
Haloperidol 7 13 6 0.50 (0.19-1.3) 0.16
Risperidone 0 1 1 N/A
Sulpiride 1 1 2 1.0 (0.06-16.0) 1.0
Thioridaziné 24 19 9 1.6 (0.67-3.9) 0.28
Trifluoperazine 3 3 6 1.0 (0.20-4.9) 1.0
Zuclopenthixol 2 0 1 N/A
High-dose antipsychotic 4 4 1 1.0 (0.25-4.0) 1.0
Low-dose antipsychotic 38 38 30 1.1 (0.56-2.3) 0.72
Any antipsychotic 42 40 31 1.1 (0.55-2.4) 0.71
Other drug therapy
Beta-blockers 4 0 0 N/A
Benzodiazepines 12 13 14 1.0 (0.35-2.8) 1.0
Carbamazepine 5 10 4 0.38 (0.10-1.4) 0.15
Chlormethiazole 7 7 4 1.0 (0.29-3.4) 1.0
Diuretics 17 3 10 8.0 (1.8-34.8) 0.01
Lithium 2 4 3 0.50 (0.09-2.7) 0.42
Other 1 1 0 1.0 (0.06-16.0) 1.0
Phenelzine 2 0 0 N/A
Procyclidine 11 10 9 1.1 (0.43-2.9) 0.80
Sodium valproate 1 5 1 0.2 (0.02-1.7) 0.14
SSRIs 2 2 2 1.0 (0.14-7.1) 1.0
Tricyclic antidepressants 13 12 11 1.11 (0.45-2.7) 0.81