Table 2

Baseline, post-treatment and follow-up results for the cognitive–behavioural therapy group (n=35) and the supportive counselling group (n=23)

Outcome measure Baseline score Post-treatment Follow-up score Confidence interval (95%) between groups Effect sizes1
Mean (s.d.) Mean (s.d.) Mean (s.d.) Post-treatment Follow-up Post-treatment Follow-up
CBT, cognitive—behavioural therapy; PANSS, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; PSYRATS, Psychotic Symptoms Rating Scale; SC, supportive counselling.
1. Effect size convention: small, 0.20; medium, 0.50; large, 0.80.
2. Sphericity was violated.
3. In favour of supportive counselling.
*P <0.05 (one-tailed).
PANSS
     Positive symptoms
     CBT 17.99 (4.15) 15.09 (3.91) 14.64 (3.70) -2.84 to 0.08 -2.68 to 0.79 0.06 (-0.22 to 0.83) 0.21 (-0.32 to 0.74)
         SC 17.71 (4.05) 16.28 (3.76) 15.44 (3.94)
     Negative symptoms
         CBT 13.69 (4.82) 12.95 (3.51) 11.76 (3.42) 0.04 to 2.78*2 1.38 to 1.70 0.373 (-0.17 to 0.66) 0.013 (0.51 to 0.54)
         SC 14.13 (4.61) 11.74 (2.91) 11.72 (2.61)
     General psychopathology
         CBT 33.81 (9.73) 30.40 (6.28) 29.74 (6.34) -1.23 to 3.53 -2.37 to 3.04 0.42 (-0.11 to 0.95) 0.26 (-0.28 to 0.78)
         SC 33.47 (7.03) 29.58 (6.16) 29.62 (4.65)
PSYRATS
     Auditory hallucination scale
         Physical characteristics
             CBT 5.57 (5.02) 4.26 (4.34) 5.35 (3.70) -3.89 to -0.47* -2.02 to 2.02 0.75 (0.20 to 1.29) 0.26 (-0.27 to 0.78)
             SC 7.52 (4.74) 7.91 (5.53) 6.60 (5.05)
         Emotional characteristics
             CBT 6.17 (5.61) 5.48 (5.80) 6.21 (5.05) -1.84 to 1.97 -1.55 to 2.72 0.42 (-0.11 to 0.95) 0.26 (-0.28 to 0.78)
             SC 9.26 (5.52) 7.81 (4.98) 7.52 (5.20)
         Cognitive interpretation
             CBT 5.63 (5.34) 4.46 (4.17) 4.68 (4.18) -3.32 to -0.44* -2.72 to 1.52 0.77 (0.22 to 1.30) 0.37 (-0.17 to 0.89)
             SC 7.83 (4.86) 7.87 (4.79) 6.37 (5.18)
     Delusion scale
         Cognitive
             CBT 9.14 (4.64) 7.00 (4.28) 6.81 (4.32) -3.26 to 0.24 -2.80 to 1.07 0.06 (-0.47 to 0.58) 0.08 (-0.44 to 0.61)
             SC 7.09 (5.47) 7.26 (4.50) 6.42 (5.08)
         Emotional characteristics
             CBT 4.74 (2.72) 4.02 (2.80) 3.28 (2.74) -1.27 to 1.40 -1.79 to 1.17 0.24 (-0.77 to 0.29) 0.04 (-0.49 to 0.55)
             SC 3.39 (3.23) 3.36 (2.61) 3.17 (2.92)