Table 1

Multilevel models for all self-harm

Domain models Final combined model Level of effect
OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P Trust Ward Shift
Patienta
    Proportion with schizophrenia 0.79 (0.67–0.92) <0.01 0.78 (0.67–0.91) <0.01 × ×
    Proportion under 35 years old 1.29 (0.10–1.50) <0.01 1.27 (1.09–1.47) <0.01 × ×
    Proportion Caribbean 1.70 (1.44–2.00) <0.001 1.51 (1.30–1.76) <0.001 × ×
    Index of Multiple Deprivation 0.77 (0.65–0.91) <0.01 0.81 (0.69–0.94) <0.01 × ×
Service environment
    Admissions during shift 1.26 (1.22–1.30) <0.001 1.25 (1.21–1.29) <0.001 ×
    Admissions per daya 1.25 (1.06–1.47) <0.01 1.19 (1.03–1.38) <0.05 × ×
Physical environment
    None
Patient routines
    None
Conflict
    Aggression–objects 1.03 (1.00–1.06) <0.05
    Aggression–others 1.05 (1.02–1.09) <0.001 1.04 (1.00–1.07) <0.05 ×
    Refusing–drink 0.96 (0.92–0.99) <0.05
    Refusing–go–bed 1.03 (1.00–1.06) <0.05
    Refusing–see workers 1.04 (1.01–1.06) <0.01 1.03 (1.00–1.068) <0.05 ×
    Attempting–abscond 1.04 (1.00–1.07) <0.05
    Absconding officially reported 1.04 (1.01–1.07) <0.01 1.05 (1.02–1.08) <0.001 ×
Containment
    Door locked <1 h 1.27 (0.98–1.64) ns 1.22 (0.95–1.58) ns
    Door locked 1–3 h 1.22 (1.00–1.48) <0.05 1.19 (0.99–1.44) ns
    Door locked >3 h 1.51 (1.17–1.94) <0.01 1.48 (1.15–1.89) <0.01 × ×
    Door locked full shift 1.24 (1.10–1.39) <0.001 1.20 (1.07–1.35) <0.01 × ×
    Prescription required as needed 1.10 (1.07–1.14) <0.001 1.09 (1.05–1.13) <0.001 × ×
    Seclusion 1.03 (1.00–1.06) <0.05
    Intermittent observation 0.80 (0.76–0.85) <0.001 0.82 (0.78–0.87) <0.001 ×
    Manual restraint 1.06 (1.03–1.09) <0.001 1.04 (1.01–1.07) <0.01 ×
Staff demographics
    Qualified nurses on duty 0.94 (0.90–0.98) <0.01 0.94 (0.90–0.98) <0.01 ×
    Student nurses on duty 1.05 (1.01–1.09) <0.01 1.05 (1.01–1.09) <0.01 ×
    Proportion of staff Whitea 0.68 (0.55–0.85) <0.001
Staff attitudes/group
    None
  • ns, not significant

  • a. Variables entered at ward level, all others entered at shift level