Table 2

Multilevel models of moderate self-harm

Domain models Final combined model Level of effect
OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P Trust Ward Shift
Patienta
    Proportion Caribbean 1.49 (1.12–1.98) <0.01 1.47 (1.12–1.94) <0.01 × ×
    Index of Multiple Deprivation 0.69 (0.50–0.94) <0.05
Service environment
    Assertive outreach teama 0.47 (0.23–0.97) <0.05
    Admissions during shift 1.10 (1.01–1.20) <0.05 1.10 (1.01–1.20) <0.05 × ×
Physical environment
    None
Patient routines
    Patient activity sessionsa 0.55 (0.38–0.79) <0.001 0.53 (0.38–0.75) <0.001 × ×
Conflict
    Physical aggression against objects 1.12 (1.06–1.17) <0.001 1.11 (1.05–1.16) <0.001 ×
    Absconding (official report) 1.10 (1.03–1.19) <0.01 1.12 (1.05–1.20) <0.001 × ×
    Demanding PRN medication 1.11 (1.03–1.20) <0.01
Containment
    Given PRN medication 1.25 (1.16–1.35) <0.001 1.22 (1.13–1.31) <0.001 × ×
    Intermittent observation 0.83 (0.72–0.94) <0.01 0.87 (0.76–0.99) <0.05 × ×
    Show of force 1.07 (1.01–1.14) <0.05
    Manual restraint 1.06 (1.00–1.12) <0.05 1.08 (1.02–1.13) <0.01 ×
Staff demographics
    Number of consultant psychiatrists in posta 1.44 (1.06–1.94) <0.05
    Proportion of staff Whitea 0.69 (0.49–0.98) <0.05
Staff attitudes/group
    None
  • PRN, prescription required as needed

  • a. Variables entered at ward level, all others entered at shift level