Table 2

Estimated risk ratios (95% CI) between measures of pregnancy history and mental health outcomes after adjustment for covariates

Live birth, RR (95% CI)
Measure Abortion RR (95% CI) Pregnancy loss RR (95% CI) Unwanted/adverse reaction No adverse reaction Significant covariatesa
a. 1=maternal education; 2=family socio-economic status; 3=childhood sexual abuse; 4=childhood physical abuse; 5=child neuroticism (14 years); 6=self-esteem (15 years); 7=teacher-rated grade point average (11-13 years); 8=depression/anxiety disorder (15 years); 9=suicidal ideation (15 years); 10=adolescent alcohol use (16 years); 11=living with parents; 12=cohabiting partner; 13=employment problems; 14=partner relationship problems; 15=serious illness or death in family; 16=sexual or physical violence victimisation; 17=lagged history of mental health problems. Covariates not significant in any analysis: family living standards (0-10 years); family income (0-10 years); changes of parents (0-15 years);inter-parental violence (0-16 years); parental mental health problems; parental alcohol problems; parental criminality; parental illicit drug use; parental attachment; novelty-seeking; child IQ; child conduct problems; early sexual onset; early tobacco use and early cannabis use.
Concurrent models
     Major depression 1.58 (1.08-2.32) 1.14 (0.70-1.85) 1.60 (0.94-2.72) 0.71 (0.47-1.05) 3-5,7,12-17
     Anxiety disorder 1.55 (1.03-2.32) 1.41 (0.86-2.32) 1.22 (0.69-2.15) 1.12 (0.75-1.68) 5, 8,14-17
     Suicidal ideation 1.35 (0.77-2.38) 1.96 (1.00-3.83) 0.93 (0.41-2.13) 1.02 (0.57-1.83) 3-5,9,12,14-16
     Alcohol dependence 1.19 (0.56-2.55) 2.23 (0.92-5.41) 0.48 (0.12-1.89) 0.68 (0.28-1.64) 4,12-14,17
     Illicit drug dependence 3.56 (1.59-7.98) 0.87 (0.29-2.56) 1.12 (0.35-3.63) 0.58 (0.22-1.50) 2,3,10,11,14,16,17
     Number of mental health problems 1.37 (1.16-1.62) 1.25 (1.01-1.53) 1.11 (0.88-1.41) 0.93 (0.78-1.11) 3-7,12,14-17
5-year lagged models
     Major depression 1.31 (0.77-2.22) 0.76 (0.39-1.50) 1.66 (0.80-3.45) 1.15 (0.68-1.96) 3-5,7,15,16
     Anxiety disorder 2.13 (1.24-3.64) 2.10 (1.05-4.20) 1.17 (0.51-2.65) 1.44 (0.84-2.46) 5,6,15
     Suicidal ideation 1.61 (0.82-3.18) 1.47 (0.63-3.39) 1.02 (0.35-3.00) 1.85 (0.94-3.65) 3,4,9
     Alcohol dependence 2.88 (1.01-8.18) 1.33 (0.36-4.96) 0.41 (0.04-4.28) 1.19 (0.36-4.00) 1,4,9,16
     Illicit drug dependence 2.85 (1.09-7.44) 1.30 (0.33-5.19) 0.22 (0.02-2.77) 0.30 (0.07-1.35) 2,3,7,10
     Number of mental health problems 1.32 (1.05-1.67) 1.06 (0.79-1.43) 1.05 (0.73-1.50) 1.22 (0.96-1.55) 3-7,15,16