Table 1

Characteristics of participants at phase 5 according to the presence of CES–D depression at phase 7

CES—D depression at phase 7a
No n = 3070 Yes n = 416 Pb
Gender: women, % 25.3 33.2 0.0006
Age, years: mean (s.d.) 55.7(6.0) 54.5 (6.2) 0.0002
Single or divorced, % 18.4 31.7 < 10-4
No academic qualification, % 7.6 11.5 0.09
Low employment grade, % 7.8 12.0 < 10-4
Current smoker, % 7.3 14.7 < 10-4
Low level of physical activity, % 12.0 18.3 < 10-4
Diabetes, % 2.5 5.0 0.003
Hypertension, % 25.1 22.6 0.26
Coronary heart disease, % 5.4 7.7 0.06
Self-reported stroke, % 0.59 0.72 0.74
Antidepressant drug use, % 1.9 5.5 < 10-4
Low AH4 cognitive score,c % 11.9 14.4 0.14
Total energy intake, kJ/day: mean (s.d.) 542 (158) 544 (181) 0.85
  • AH4, Alice Heim test 4-I; CES—D, Center for Epidemiologic Studies — Depression scale.

  • a. Depression assessed with CES—D questionnaire; participants scoring more than 15 were classified as having ‘CES—D depression’.

  • b. Value for heterogeneity.

  • c. Below first quintile.