Table 3

Associations between dietary pattern scores at phase 5 and CES–D depression at phase 7 (n = 3486)

Intermediate tertile Highest tertile
Lowest tertile OR OR (95% CI) Pa OR (95% CI) Pa
Whole food dietary pattern
     Model 1b 1 0.62 (0.48-0.79) 0.0002 0.64 (0.49-0.83) 0.001
     Model 2c 1 0.68 (0.52-0.89) 0.004 0.74 (0.56-0.98) 0.03
     Model 3d 1 0.71 (0.54-0.92) 0.01 0.74 (0.56-0.99) 0.04
Processed food dietary pattern
     Model 1 1 1.28 (0.97-1.69) 0.08 1.75 (1.25-2.45) 0.001
     Model 2 1 1.22 (0.92-1.62) 0.17 1.58 (1.12-2.23) 0.009
     Model 3 1 1.22 (0.92-1.62) 0.17 1.58 (1.11-2.23) 0.01
  • CES—D, Center for Epidemiologic Studies — Depression scale.

  • a. Value for trend.

  • b. Model 1: adjusted for gender, age and energy intake.

  • c. Model 2: model 1 plus adjustment for marital status, employment grade, education, physical activity and smoking habits.

  • d. Model 3: model 2 plus adjustment for hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, self-reported stroke, use of antidepressive drugs and cognitive functioning.