Table 4

Associations between dietary pattern scores at phase 5 and CES–D depression at phase 7 after excluding participants identified as having depression at phase 5 (total n = 3059)a

Intermediate tertile Highest tertile
Lowest tertile OR OR (95% CI) Pa OR (95% CI) Pa
Whole food dietary pattern
     Model 1b 1 0.63 (0.46-0.87) 0.005 0.66 (0.47-0.92) 0.01
     Model 2c 1 0.70 (0.50-0.96) 0.03 0.74 (0.52-1.04) 0.08
     Model 3d 1 0.68 (0.50-0.94) 0.02 0.73 (0.51-1.02) 0.07
Processed food dietary pattern
     Model 1 1 1.44 (1.02-2.02) 0.04 1.83 (1.20-2.79) 0.004
     Model 2 1 1.41 (1.00-2.00) 0.05 1.76 (1.14-2.70) 0.01
     Model 3 1 1.38 (0.98-1.95) 0.06 1.69 (1.10-2.60) 0.02
  • CES—D, Center for Epidemiologic Studies — Depression scale.

  • a. Participants defined as having depression using the General Health Questionnaire depression subscale (n = 374) or those taking antidepressant drugs (n = 81).

  • b. Model 1: adjusted for gender, age and energy intake.

  • c. Model 2: model 1 plus adjustment for marital status, employment grade, level of education, physical activity and smoking habits.

  • d. Model 3: model 2 plus adjustment for hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, self-reported stroke, use of antidepressive drugs and cognitive functioning.