Table 1

Baseline characteristics of 79 patients randomised to music therapy or standard care

CharacteristicMusic therapy group (n = 33)Control group (n = 46)Mean difference (95% CI)Odds ratio (95% CI)Pa
Age: years, mean (s.d.)35.8 (9.0)35.5 (10.5)0.21 (–4.60 to 4.17)0.92
Female, n (%)25 (75.8)37 (80.4)1.31 (0.38 to 4.43)0.78
Diagnosis,bn (%)0.77
    F32.0 Mild depressive episode8 (24.2)15 (32.6)
    F32.1 Moderate depressive episode17 (51.5)21 (45.7)
    F32.2 Severe depressive episode without psychotic symptoms8 (24.2)10 (21.7)
Anxiety (cut-off score 8 in Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale – Anxiety)28 (84.8)35 (76.1)0.40
Musical background (self-reported), n (%)
    Sings11 (33.3)12 (26.1)1.41 (0.47 to 4.21)0.62
    Plays an instrument14 (42.4)13 (28.3)1.86 (0.66 to 5.33)0.23
    Has musical training7 (21.2)6 (13.0)1.78 (0.46 to 7.21)0.37
    Self-described as a musician/singer9 (27.3)8 (17.4)1.77 (0.52 to 6.08)0.41
Current medication (self-reported), n (%)
    Any antidepressant medication22 (66.7)35 (76.1)0.63 (0.21 to 1.91)0.45
    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors16 (48.5)20 (43.5)1.22 (0.45 to 3.30)0.82
    Serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors5 (15.2)9 (20.0)0.72 (0.17 to 2.71)0.77
Psychiatric test scores, mean (s.d.)
    Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale score24.6 (6.4)23.0 (7.6)1.61 (–4.74 to 1.53)0.31
    Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale – Anxiety score11.2 (3.5)10.3 (3.9)0.98 (–2.66 to 0.70)0.25
    Global Assessment of Functioning score58.5 (6.4)59.5 (8.0)0.96 (–2.27 to 4.19)0.55
    Toronto Alexithymia Scale score52.5 (12.4)51.2 (11.3)1.27 (–6.73 to 4.20)0.64
    Health-related quality of life survey RAND–36 score50.5 (15.3)52.6 (13.9)2.05 (–4.66 to 8.76)0.54
  • a Welch's t-test for continuous outcomes, Fisher's exact test for dichotomous outcomes.

  • b Based on Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale cut-off scores (up to 19, mild; 20–29, moderate; 30 or greater, severe).