Table 2

Changes in primary and secondary outcomes in the music therapy group and control group from baseline to 3 and 6 months (intention-to-treat): continuous outcomes

3-month follow-up, (n = 67)a6-month follow-up, (n = 64)b
OutcomeMean (s.d.)Change from baseline MeanMean difference (95% CI)t-testPMean (s.d.)Change from baseline MeanMean difference (95% CI)t-testP
Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale
    Control group16.43 (9.33)–6.054.65 (0.59 to 8.70)2.290.03*14.74 (10.65)–6.973.44 (–1.05 to 7.94)1.530.13
    Music therapy group14.10 (8.77)–10.7014.48 (9.60)–10.41
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale – Anxiety
    Control group8.00 (4.11)–1.951.82 (0.09 to 3.55)2.110.04*7.29 (4.75)–2.461.65 (–0.38 to 3.67)1.630.11
    Music therapy group7.37 (3.99)–3.777.21 (4.15)–4.10
Global Assessment of Functioning
    Control group66.78 (9.61)6.92–4.58 (–8.93 to –0.24)–2.110.04*70.74 (12.64)10.06–4.56 (–10.48 to 1.35)–1.540.13
    Music therapy group70.00 (9.37)11.5072.90 (13.89)14.62
Toronto Alexithymia Scale – 20
    Control group47.43 (11.99)–4.052.05 (–2.35 to 6.44)0.930.3645.77 (12.80)–5.373.53 (–1.36 to 8.41)1.450.15
    Music therapy group45.83 (13.51)–6.1042.66 (12.20)–8.90
Health-related quality of life survey RAND–36
    Control group62.59 (18.20)9.86–4.50 (–11.40 to 2.40)–1.300.2064.60 (18.74)10.80–4.13 (–11.83 to 3.57)–1.070.29
    Music therapy group66.70 (20.10)14.3767.93 (18.51)14.93
  • a Control group n = 37; music therapy group n = 30.

  • b Control group n = 35; music therapy group n = 29.

  • * P < 0.05.