Table 4

Clinical relevance of the effects of individual music therapy: effect sizes and number needed to treata

Effect size, dRisk difference, %Number needed to treat
Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale0.65
Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale – Anxiety0.49
Global Assessment of Functioning0.62
  • a All analyses intention-to-treat. Effect sizes were calculated as the difference in change at 3 months divided by the pooled standard deviation at baseline (Table 1), with signs reversed where applicable so that a positive effect size indicates a difference in favour of music therapy. Risk difference and number needed to treat are based on the numbers with no response at 3 months (Table 3).