Table 2

Group differences between mothers maltreated in childhood v. non-maltreated mothers

Maternal child maltreatmentGroup effecta
NO (n = 6861)Yes (n = 2536)χ2(1)z
Maternal factors
    Post 16 years education, %61.358.75.2*
    Single, %47.149.12.3
    Psychiatric history, %6.219.1341.7**
    Antenatal depression, %14.629.4260.4**
    Antenatal drinking, mean (s.d.)0.7 (0.8)0.8 (0.8)3.1**
    Antenatal smoking, mean (s.d.)1.6(4.4)2.6 (5.5)10.8**
    Postnatal depression, %9.722.0244.9**
    Maladaptive parenting, mean (s.d.)1.1 (1.0)1.2 (1.0)5.4**
    Social support, mean (s.d.)21.6 (4.7)19.2 (5.5)−17.7**
Child factors
    Child maltreatment, %35.249.3155.1**
    DSM-IV depression symptoms at 10 years, mean (s.d.)0.2 (0.9)0.4(1.2)6.0**
    DSM-IV DBD symptoms at 10 years, mean (s.d.)5.1 (7.7)7.2 (10.0)8.6**
    SDQ emotional problems, 11 years, mean (s.d.)1.3 (1.6)1.7 (1.8)7.1**
    SDQ peer problems at 11 years, mean (s.d.)0.9(1.4)1.3 (1.7)6.4**
    SDQ conduct problems at 11 years, mean (s.d.)1.1 (1.3)1.3 (1.5)6.0**
    SDQ hyperactivity problems at 11 years, mean (s.d.)2.6 (2.1)3.0 (2.3)4.7**
    DSM-IV depression symptoms at 13 years, mean (s.d.)0.2 (0.9)0.4(1.3)4.8**
    DSM-IV dbd symptoms at 13 years, mean (s.d.)4.7 (7.6)6.2 (9.2)6.1**
    Gender, % female49.047.32.1
  • DBD, disruptive behaviour disorder; SDQ, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.

  • a. Group effects are based upon Pearson's χ2 test for independence for associations with two dichotomous variables and the Mann–Whitney test for associations with a dichotomous and continuous variable that did not permit parametric analyses.

  • * P<0.05,

  • ** P<0.01.