Table 2

All-cause mortality rates

All-cause mortalityGeneral population comparisona
(n = 219 387)
Bipolar disorder
(n = 17 341)
Schizophrenia
(n = 22 497)
Deaths, n627912662061
PYAR, 10000s    64.88    6.02    8.29
Rate, per 10000 pyar (95% CI)    96.79 (94.42–99.21)  210.34 (199.07–222.25)  248.57 (238.06–259.53)
Age, gender, calendar period adjusted HR (95% CI)      1 (reference)    1.79 (1.69–1.90)    2.14 (2.03–2.25)
Sociodemographics adjusted HRb (95% CI)      1 (reference)    1.77 (1.67–1.88)    2.08 (1.98–2.19)
Stratified fully adjusted modelb
Gender, Pc    0.297  <0.0001
    Men, HR (95% CI)      1 (reference)    1.85 (1.68–2.04)    2.50 (2.32–2.69)
    Women, HR (95% CI)      1 (reference)    1.73 (1.61–1.87)    1.78 (1.66–1.90)
Age, Pc  <0.0001  <0.0001
    16–50, HR (95% CI)      1 (reference)    3.22 (2.77–3.75)    4.69 (4.16–5.29)
    >50, HR (95% CI)      1 (reference)    1.60 (1.50–1.70)    1.80 (1.71–1.91)
  • PYAR, person-years at-risk; HR, hazard ratio.

  • a. General population comparison group of up to six individuals without bipolar disorder or schizophrenia matched for gender, age group and primary care practice.

  • b. Age, gender, calendar period, area-level deprivation, ethnicity.

  • c. Test for heterogeneity.