Table 3

Cardiovascular disease mortality and suicide rates

General population comparisona
(n = 219 387)
Bipolar disorder
(n = 17 341)
Schizophrenia
(n = 22 497)
Cardiovascular disease death
Deaths, n43759106
PYAR, 10000S  64.88  6.02    8.29
Rate, per 10000 PYAR (95% CI)    6.74 (6.13–7.40)  9.80 (7.59–12.65)  12.78 (10.57–15.46)
Age, gender, calendar period adjusted, HR (95% CI)    1 (reference)  1.11 (0.85–1.46)    1.43 (1.15–1.76)
Sociodemographics adjusted HRb (95% CI)    1 (reference)  1.10 (0.84–1.46)    1.39 (1.12–1.73)
Stratified adjusted modelb HR (95% CI)
    Gender, Pc  0.394    0.068
      Men    1 (reference)  1.28 (0.83–1.97)    1.74 (1.26–2.39)
      Women    1 (reference)  1.00 (0.70–1.43)    1.16 (0.86–1.57)
    Age, Pc  0.960    0.013
      16–50    1 (reference)  1.13 (0.34–3.71)    3.20 (1.62–6.31)
      >50    1 (reference)  1.10 (0.83–1.45)    1.29 (1.03–1.63)
    Period, Pc  0.009    0.323
      2000–2004    1 (reference)  1.06 (0.64–1.77)    1.61 (1.12–2.30)
      2005–2009    1 (reference)  0.69 (0.42–1.14)    1.13 (0.80–1.60)
      2010–2014    1 (reference)  1.92 (1.24–2.98)    1.57 (1.01–2.43)
Health and health behaviour adjusted HRd (95% CI)    1 (reference)  1.05 (0.80–1.39)    1.22 (0.98–1.52)
Suicide
Deaths, n  3336  33
PYAR, 10 000s  64.88  6.02    8.29
Rate, per 10000 PYAR (95% CI)    0.51 (0.36–0.72)  5.98 (4.31–8.29)    3.98 (2.83–5.60)
Age, gender, calendar period adjusted, HR (95% CI)    1 (reference)12.94 (8.04–20.82)    7.90 (4.84–12.90)
Sociodemographics adjusted,b HR (95% CI)    1 (reference)12.66 (7.79–20.58)    7.21 (4.26–12.19)
Stratified adjusted modelb HR (95% CI)
    Gender, Pc  0.524    0.810
      Men11.10 (5.85–21.06)    6.91 (3.71–12.87)
      Women    1 (reference)15.27 (7.11–32.78)    7.90 (3.15–19.79)
    Age, Pc  0.478    0.499
      16–50    1 (reference)13.20 (7.58–22.99)    8.17 (4.45–14.99)
      >50    1 (reference)  8.79 (3.30–23.41)    5.47 (2.00–14.90)
    Period, Pc  0.306    0.772
      2000–2004    1 (reference)  6.60 (1.53–28.48)  10.18 (3.25–31.90)
      2005–2009    1 (reference)  9.50 (4.74–19.07)    6.26 (3.05–12.88)
      2010–2014    1 (reference)18.88 (8.62–41.32)  7.50 (2.94–19.12)
  • PYAR, person-years at-risk.

  • a. General population comparison group of up to six individuals without bipolar disorder or schizophrenia matched for gender, age group, primary care practice.

  • b. Age, gender, calendar period, area-level deprivation, ethnicity, number of primary care contacts.

  • c. Test for heterogeneity.

  • d. Adjusted for age, gender, calendar period, area-level deprivation, ethnicity, smoking, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, body mass index, diabetes mellitus and primary care contacts.