Table 3

Specific indirect effects of maternal child maltreatment on child internalising and externalising difficulties via maternal antenatal depression, postnatal depression, maladaptive parenting and child maltreatmenta

internalising difficultiesExternalising difficulties
β95% CIβ95% CI
Antenatal depression0.0130.009 to 0.017b0.0090.005 to 0.012b
Postnatal depression0.0040.001 to 0.007b0.0020.001 to 0.004b
Maladaptive parenting0.002−0.002 to 0.0070.003−0.002 to 0.008
Child maltreatment0.0140.008 to 0.020b0.0120.009 to 0.016b
Antenatal depression via postnatal depression0.0060.003 to 0.009b0.0010.001 to 0.006b
Antenatal depression via maladaptive parenting0.0000.000 to 0.0010.0010.000 to 0.001
Antenatal depression via child maltreatment0.0010.0001 to 0.001b0.0010.0001 to 0.001b
Postnatal depression via maladaptive parenting0.0010.0001 to 0.002b0.0010.001 to 0.002b
Postnatal depression via child maltreatment0.0010.0001 to 0.001b0.0010.0001 to 0.001b
Antenatal depression via postnatal depression via maladaptive parenting0.0020.001 to 0.002b0.0020.001 to 0.003b
Antenatal depression via postnatal depression via child maltreatment0.0010.0001 to 0.001b0.0010.0001 to 0.001b
  • a. Presented estimates are beta coefficients.

  • b. Signifcant indirect effect (i.e. the 95% bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals do not cross zero).