Table 1

Background data, including cognitive and Autobiographical Memory Test performance and psychiatric status in the maltreated and non-maltreated groups

Maltreatment
group (n = 34)
Non-maltreatment
group (n = 33)
P
Gender, female: n (%)17 (50)19 (58)0.620
Ethnicity, White: n (%)23 (68)17 (52)0.220
Socioeconomic status, parental education, n (%) beyond secondary14 (41)13 (39)0.802
Psychiatric diagnoses,a n (%)7 (23)0 (0)0.004
Age, years: mean (s.d.)12.53 (1.60)12.66 (1.29)0.730
Pubertal status,b mean (s.d.)2.83 (1.13)2.63 (0.63)0.401
Wechsler Abbreviated Scales of Intelligence, IQ: mean (s.d.)105.03 (15.08)108.75 (12.01)0.270
Reading score mean (s.d.)117.88 (20.42)117.55 (17.66)0.956
Visual memory, number of errors:c mean (s.d.)12.45 (6.96)9.49 (6.54)0.080
Verbal memory, number correct:c mean (s.d.)25.65 (4.92)26.58 (3.64)0.390
Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, total score: mean (s.d.)38.15 (14.75)28.91 (4.77)0.001
Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire – parent report, total difficulties score: mean (s.d.)13.34 (7.38)7.06 (4.70)<0.001
    Emotional symptoms score3.23 (2.66)1.71 (1.60)0.007
    Conduct problems score2.94 (2.18)0.71 (1.01)0.024
    Hyperactivity score5.16 (2.68)2.16 (1.59)0.002
    Peer problems score2.35 (2.01)1.03 (1.17)0.003
    Prosocial behaviour score7.52 (2.14)8.94 (1.53)0.010
Autobiographical Memory Test, total: mean (s.d.)3.48 (2.45)2.00 (2.02)0.017
    Positive memories1.58 (1.34)0.96 (1.11)0.066
    Negative memories1.90 (1.49)1.04 (1.11)0.018
  • a. Child mental health symptoms were assessed with the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA). Information on the DAWBA was missing for one child in the non-maltreatment group and for four children in the maltreatment group. Seven children in the maltreatment group met diagnostic criteria: oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) n = 4; conduct disorder n = 1; attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder n = 1; generalised anxiety disorder n = 1; separation anxiety disorder (SAD) n = 1. Note one child was comorbid for ODD and SAD.

  • b. Composite score of self-report and parent rating of Puberty Development Scale (PDS).

  • c. Measured with the CogState cognitive assessment system.