Table 1

Demographic characteristics and clinical outcomes

Rom > 6 groupGroup contrasts
LoDep (n = 92)DSE− (n = 51)DSE+ (n = 21)LoDep v. DSE−LoDep v. DSE+DSE− v. DSE+
Female, n (%)43 (46.7)24 (47.1)15 (71.4)χ2 (1) = 0.00
P = 0.971
χ2 (1) = 4.17
P = 0.041
χ2 (1) = 3.56
P = 0.059
Low socioeconomic status,a n (%)11 (12.2)5 (10.4)4 (21.1)χ2 (1) = 0.10
P = 0.752
χ2 (1) = 1.03
P = 0.310
χ2 (1) = 1.32
P = 0.250
Intact families, n (%)71 (78.0)30 (75.0)13 (61.9)χ2 (1) = 0.14
P = 0.705
χ2 (1) = 2.36
P = 0.124
χ2 (1) = 1.14
P = 0.287
Neurodevelopmental problems, mean (s.d.)
    ADHD symptomsb50.47 (10.57)56.24 (14.39)73.55 (12.18)t(57.96) = −2.24
P = 0.029
t(102) = −8.67
P = 0.001
t(58) = −4.68
P = 0.021
    ASD symptomsc0.93 (2.12)1.73 (2.76)3.98 (3.36)t(120) = −1.77
P = 0.79
t(22.77) = −3.87
P = <0.001
t(57) = −2.74
P = 0.008
    IQ102.68 (16.10)96.36 (11.03)91.00 (14.21)t(95.72) = 2.43
P = 0.79
t(90) = 2.62
P = 0.017
t(49) = 1.45
P = 0.153
    Callous-unemotional traitsd19.59 (10.43)21.41 (11.99)32.84 (13.22)t(118) = −0.85
P = 0.79
t(100) = −4.83
P <0.001
t(56) = −3.33
P = 0.002
Mental health in early adulthood, mean (s.d.)
    Depressionb54.29 (13.96)58.22 (12.03)63.31 (18.22)t(106) = −1.44
P = 0.152
t(19.10) = −1.86
P = 0.078
t(21.03) = −1.02
P = 0.318
    Anxietyb54.15 (13.63)58.50 (11.44)62.69 (16.67)t(107) = −1.55
P = 0.102
t(87) = −2.18
P = 0.032
t(21.53) = −0.92
P = 0.371
    Conduct disorderb46.38 (10.78)47.25 (9.33)53.31 (16.54)t(106) = −0.42
P = 0.679
t(17.93) = −1.60
P = 0.126
t(19.38) = −1.37
P = 0.186
Clinical service use, young adulthood:
n (%)
15 (16.7)12 (30.8)13 (68.4)χ2 (1) = 3.27
P = 0.071
χ2 (1) = 22.01
P <0.011
χ2 (1) = 7.39
P = 0.007
Young adult functioning, quality
of life:e mean (s.d.)
16.92 (5.38)16.47 (6.21)16.87 (3.96)t(102) = −0.37
P = 0.710
t(85) = 0.03
P = 0.973
t(40.52) = −0.27
P = 0.792
RAPFA – social domain dysfunction, n (%)
    Work23 (28.4)24 (55.8)11 (68.8)χ2 (1) = 8.97
P = 0.003
χ2 (1) = 9.56
P = 0.002
χ2 (1) = 0.81
P = 0.369
    Romantic relationships37 (46.3)27 (64.3)12 (80.0)χ2 (1) = 3.59
P = 0.058
χ2 (1) = 5.76
P = 0.116
χ2 (1) = 1.26
P = 0.261
    Friendships20 (24.7)24 (55.8)10 (62.5)χ2 (1) = 11.89
P = 0.001
χ2 (1) = 8.94
P = 0.003
χ2 (1) = 0.21
P = 0.644
    Non-specific social contacts11 (13.6)10 (23.3)7 (43.8)χ2 (1) = 1.87
P = 0.172
χ2 (1) = 8.05
P = 0.005
χ2 (1) = 2.39
P = 0.122
    Coping18 (23.1)17 (40.5)8 (53.3)χ2 (1) = 4.00
P = 0.045
χ2 (1) = 5.72
P = 0.017
χ2 (1) = 0.74
P = 0.389
    Unemployed11 (12.0)12 (23.5)14 (66.7)χ2 (1) = 2.26
P = 0.071
χ2 (1) = 29.70
P <0.001
χ2 (1) = 12.00
P = 0.001
    Low education (GCSE or less)24 (26.4)15 (29.4)14 (66.7)χ2 (1) = 0.15
P = 0.700
χ2 (1) = 12.36
P <0.001
χ2 (1) = 8.58
P = 0.003
Attachment security, mean (s.d.)
    IPPA mother98.26 (19.06)95.98 (27.29)93.11 (23.48)t(43.36) = 0.43
P = 0.672
t(83) = 0.91
P = 0.366
t(45) = 0.35
P = 0.727
    IPPA father96.71 (20.32)99.96 (21.79)94.62 (18.36)t(96) = −0.72
P = 0.473
t(77) = 0.33
P = 0.741
t(41) = 0.75
P = 0.457
    PAQ affective quality108.38 (19.72)103.85 (26.67)101.15 (26.72)t(50.89) = 0.88
P = 0.382
t(84) = 1.21
P = 0.230
t(47) = 0.33
P = 0.746
    PAQ facilitators of independence51.52 (11.08)51.84 (14.19)48.22 (12.53)t(96) = −0.13
P = 0.899
t(84) = 1.03
P = 0.308
t(47) = 0.85
P = 0.398
    PAQ source of support45.32 (9.49)44.07 (11.31)43.67 (9.51)t(103) = 0.59
P = 0.557
t(84) = 0.61
P = 0.543
t(47) = 0.12
P = 0.904
  • LoDep, combined UK adoptees with Romanian adoptees with less than 6 months of deprivation. DSE−, Romanian adoptees with > 6 months of deprivation individuals not meeting DSE criteria; DSE+, Romanian adoptees with more than 6 months of deprivation meeting DSE criteria; ADHD, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; ASD, autism spectrum disorder; RAPFA, Revised Adult Personality Functioning Assessment; IPPA, Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment; PAQ, Parental Attachment Questionnaire.

  • a. Based on family occupational status at age 15.

  • b. Self-rated Conners Behaviour Rating Scales T-score.

  • c. Parent-rated Social Communication Questionnaire.

  • d. Parent-rated.

  • e. Self-rated Satisfaction with Life Scale score.

  • Note: n's may not sum due to missing data. where degrees of freedom have decimal places, corrected values have been used to account for unequal variances.